The 80s and More (to be worked on)


Logo Computer Systems
Apple Logo

Hennigan School

Logo started at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, a research complany in Cambridge Massachusetts. Danny Bobrow who had been a doctoral student of Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert was head of the Artificial Intelligence Group. He introduced Seymour to Wally Feurzeig, woho was in charge of a couple of education projects, and Seymour began to consult on Wally's school project. I joined Wally's group using Lisp to build a teaching system for medical students.

The school project involved5 classes, high school, junior high, and elementary. The students were using Telcomp a language similar to Basic except it was an interpreter. Seymour visited several classes and was particularly struck by the absurdity of students using an algembraic programminb language to learn algebra. He declared that children needed a language designed for them. And so Logo was invented.
The idea was borne in 1966 and Logo was ready for kids in 1967.

Seymour taught a summer workshop to a group of 5th graders. Wally and I observed. I took copious notes and gave Seymour daily feedback. Logo was totally redesigned.
In 1968-69 Seymour and I co-taught a group of 7th graders. At the end of te year Seymour declared we needed turtles!

Here Seymour talks about Logo and Basic.

Seymour articulates the goals for Logo the language.


Papert and Talking Turtle

Talking Turtle is a 1983 video made by the Open University and the BBC. The video captures Papert's thinking about learning and Logo and turtles. Talking Turtle shows children actively engaged. The video was sent to me by Russell Warfield in Australia. Here is an excerpt.

Here is the entire video broken up into five pieces.

An Experiment in Constructionism: Dance and Computing

As Talking Turtle illustrates, Papert was interested in engaging the whole child in the Mathland offered by Logo. Twenty years later in 2003 he continued to pursue this integration.

Seymour Papert with Jacques d'Amboise and their gangs of people set up a stage with sensors to control sound, lights and animations at the MIT Media Lab in the summer of 2003. Children were to learn and invent dances that they would coordinate with music, lights, and action.

Here are some slides of the children.

You can learn more about this project here and see the children in rehearsal here.

Why this Wiki?

I started this wiki because of Seymour Papert's accident and because I had begun work on another wiki containing example Logo projects including video tutorials, images, and text. It got me thinking about the past. I encourage contributions and have set up space in this wiki for other people's contributions. (See Logo.Adventurers.) You are welcome to add to that page or create a new one.

In looking for early records of the past I found very few pictures and videos, but posted what I had. (We mostly had taken screen images.) Although I started Logo with Seymour Papert and Wally Feurzeig at the research lab of Bolt, Beranek and Newman around 1966, I have absolutely no pictures from that time. I did find a few from the early 1970s. Here are Marvin and Seymour in 1971. headshot.jpg
I also found a video I made in 1984 when the Atari Cambridge Research lab closed. I've split the video, which shows Logo-based research conducted from 1982 to 1984 at Atari Cambridge Research, into seven clips.

Work with Young Children

Radia Perlman's Button Box for Pre-Schoolers
radia1a.jpg radia2.jpg

Atari Cambridge Research 1982-84